Sunday, November 29, 2009


Papaya is a pear shaped yellowish-orange fruit that is native to Central and South America but mainly found in tropical climates around the world. Papaya is not only popular because of its delicious taste but also because of its medicinal properties.
Medicinal Properties:
• Latex, the milklike juice from unripe papaya contains the most concentration of papain, some people say it can help remove freckles.
• The Papain’s protein in papaya makes it helpful against heartburn and indigestion. Mixed with a little honey and taken before meals, it may even prevent heartburn.
• Papain also help thin the blood and discourage clotting.
• The fruit’s proteolytic enzymes and other compounds, including a substance called carpaine, work against intestinal worms and other parasites.
• Experiments done on laboratory rats suggest that papaya seeds might reverse infertility.
Other Ailments where papaya is beneficial: Blood clots, indigestion, infertility, ringworm, worms, abscesses, arthritis, blood clots, bronchitis, burns, circulatory problems, constipation, depression, enlarged lymph glands, eye inflammation, flu freckles, gallbladder problems, gas, hardening of the arteries, heart disease, hematoma, hemorrhoids, hodgkin’s disease, infections, infertility, inflammation, neurasthenia, oral inflammation, pancreatic inflammation, parasitic infections, phlebitis, psoriasis, rectal disease, respiratory disease, sore throat, stomach disease, tissue swelling, tumors, ulcers, urethritis, uterine inflammation, vaginal disease, varicose veins, water retention, wounds, yeast infections.
Recommended Dosage of Papaya:
• 10 to 50 milligrams of papain
• 1 to 3 tsps of papaya juice
• 1 to 2 tsps of dried papaya leaves in a cup of hot water
• 1 to 2 tbsps. of fresh papaya, or ½ to 1 tsp of juice of papaya daily.
• In case of intestinal worms and other parasites, munch on a dozen or so papaya seeds.Other Uses of Papaya Tree: The bark of the tree is good for making rope and the leaves are use as meat tenderizer.
Note: Excessive consumption of the fruit may cause thinning of the esophagus. Eating too much papain can also cause stomach inflammation. When applied externally, it might cause dermatitis in sensitive skin.

Friday, November 13, 2009

Stem cells

Methods of use - adult stem cells
The use of endogenous adult stem cells is ethical and legally straightforward. Under German law, the extracted stem cells are categorized as drugs. Because they are exclusively for personal use, they are individual drugs, and under German law do not require the same governmental approval as other drugs. Despite this, the clinic still has to obtain a manufacturing license from the surveillance authority. At the XCell-Center, it is guaranteed that the processes of extraction, cleaning and transplantation are all carried out in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards, thus guaranteeing maximum quality and safety for the patient.

For the last few years, attempts at therapy with adult stem cells from bone marrow have been carried out at university hospitals. This means that unlike animal testing with embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells are in-part, already being clinically tested. The well-documented success of the cardiologist Prof. Dr. Bodo Strauer from Düsseldorf can be seen as an example. He treated a patient suffering from a series of heart attacks for whom common therapies could not assure any chance of survival with the patient's own bone marrow stem cells. Nine days after the stem cells had been injected into the diseased area, the patient was able to leave the intensive care unit. Up to now, more than 300 patients have been treated in Düsseldorf using this procedure – most of them successfully.

The XCell-Center's treatment is based on the therapy experiences of more than 400 patients, treated both in the XCell-Center directly and in cooperation with other universities and research institutes (standing: October 2007). At present, the results of treating diabetes mellitus and stroke with stem cell therapy are looking particularly auspicious. Initial results have also been obtained from the treatment of patients with Parkinson's, Alzheimer's or Multiple Sclerosis.

Curing leukemia
The use of adult stem cells is by no means completely new. Stem cells have been used for the therapy of blood cancer (leukemia) for more than 40 years now. Normally this is done by allogenic bone marrow transplantation, i.e. bone marrow is taken from suitable donors. In this respect, the treatment differs from that which is offered by the XCell-Center because we use the patient’s own bone marrow stem cells. The hematopoietic stem cells contained in the bone marrow settle into the recipient's body and produce fresh blood cells there. At this point the original bone marrow and thus, the patient's leukemia cells have already been previously destroyed by chemotherapy. One problem is the rejection of foreign cells. The patient has to take medicine to suppress this reaction. Of special interest is the relatively new knowledge that these defensive reactions are in part beneficial: the cancer cells are destroyed more effectively by activating the immune system. One can speak of an anti-leukemic effect that helps to destroy the sick leukemia cells. In contrast to other diseases, the use of exogenous stem cells is desirable for leukemia.

Further methods of use under investigation
The spectrum of applications for the use of adult stem cells is wide. Examples include the use of adult stem cells for rebuilding cartilage and destroyed wrist, skin or bone tissue (keyword: Tissue Engineering). No studies have yet examined the well-documented research on human beings, proving this scientifically. Two studies published in professional journals in 2007 showed for the first time that endogenous insulin production in type 1 and type 2 diabetics is activated through therapy with adult stem cells. The questions of whether new insulin-producing cells are formed or whether existing cells are regenerated have not yet been clarified. The XCell-Center is conducting its own clinical studies parallel to the treatment of patients with different diseases using autologous adult stem cells.

The field of neurology is being examined very intensively. The use of adult stem cells offers a new treatment strategy for previously incurable diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or Multiple Sclerosis. Here the defined aim is either to replace the damaged neurocytes with stem cells or to regenerate them. One approach that is of special interest for stroke patients: researchers from the "Fraunhofer-Institut für Zelltherapie und Immunologie" in Leipzig were able to show curative successes in animal testing with adult stem cells.

Components of the Cell Cycle

Components of the Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle
Two events, copying and cleaving, represent the two larger phases of the cell cycle, interphase and Mitosis. Mitosis is the part of the cell cycle when the cell prepares for and completes cell division. During interphase, appropriate cellular components are copied. Interphase is also a time of checkpoints to make sure that the cell is ready to proceed into mitosis. Both of these two phases have further sub-divisions. Since the cell cycle is a "cycle" it has no distinct beginning or ending. Cells are continually entering and exiting the various phases of the cycle.


G1 phase
G1 is an intermediate phase occupying the time between the end of cell division in mitosis and the beginning of DNA replication during S phase. During this time, the cell grows in preparation for DNA replication, and certain intracellular components, such as the centrosomes undergo replication. Before a cell begins DNA replication, it must ensure that it is biologically ready to take on such a process. G1 is the phase when this cellular monitoring takes place.

During G1, the cell reviews the cellular environment and the cell size to ensure that the conditions are appropriate to support DNA replication. Not until the cell is ready does it leave G1. If all is not ready to undergo DNA replication, cells can pause during G1 and enter a phase called G0. Depending on a cell's preparedness to continue in the cell cycle, G0 can last days, weeks, or even years. When the cell has reached an appropriate size and is in a supportive environment for DNA replication, it will exit either G1 or G0 and enter the next phase of interphase called S phase.

S phase

S phase, or synthesis, is the phase of the cell cycle when DNA packaged into chromosomes is replicated. This event is an essential aspect of the cell cycle because replication allows for each cell created by cell division to have the same genetic make-up. (The specifics of how this replication takes place is covered in the DNA replication SparkNote in the series of SparkNotes dedicated to Molecular Biology.) During S phase a number of events additional to chromosomee replication take place. Cell growth continues through S phase, as does the rate of synthesis of a number of proteins and enzymes that are involved in DNA synthesis. Once DNA replication is complete the cell contains twice its normal number of chromosomes and becomes ready to enter the phase called G2.

G2 phase

Similar to G1, G2 is an intermediate phase, a time for the cell to ensure that it is ready to proceed in the cell cycle. Occurring between the end of DNA replication in S phase and the beginning of cell division in mitosis, G2 can be thought of as a safety gap during which a cell can check to make sure that the entirety of its DNA and other intracellular components have been properly duplicated. In addition to acting as a checkpoint along the cell cycle, G2 also represents the cell's final chance to grow before it is split into two independent cells during mitosis.

Cell Cycle Summary
Interphase is made up of three distinct phases: G1, S phase, and G2. The G1 and G2 phases serve as checkpoints for the cell to make sure that it is ready to proceed in the cell cycle. If it is not, the cell will use this time to make proper adjustments that can include cell growth, correction or completion of DNA synthesis, and duplication of intracellular components. S phase involves the replication of chromosomes. All three stages of interphase involve continued cell growth and an increase in the concentration of proteins found in the cell.

karyokinesis: It is the division of nuclear material in cell division.

Cytokinesis: It is the division of cytoplasmic material during cell cycle of division

Karyokinesis occurs well before cytokinesis. And both the above steps occurs in mitotic or meiotic phase depends upon the the type of cell.

Mitosis is a process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.

In a typical animal cell, mitosis can be divided into four principals stages:

Prophase: The chromatin, diffuse in interphase, condenses into chromosomes. Each chromosome has duplicated and now consists of two sister chromatids. At the end of prophase, the nuclear envelope breaks down into vesicles.

Metaphase: The chromosomes align at the equitorial plate and are held in place by microtubules attached to the mitotic spindle and to part of the centromere.

Anaphase: The centromeres divide. Sister chromatids separate and move toward the corresponding poles.

Telophase: Daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles and the microtubules disappear. The condensed chromatin expands and the nuclear envelope reappears. The cytoplasm divides, the cell membrane pinches inward ultimately producing two daughter cells (phase: Cytokinesis


Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Famous Filipino Scientists

Felix Maramba - built a coconut oil-fueled power generator

Eduardo San Juan - astronomy - helped invent the Lunar Rover

Charle Mar Abelo - zoologist - study about animals

Jezrel Canlas - botany - study about plants

Jose Cruz- electrical engineering

Emerito de Guzman -work on the growth and development in vitro of the makapuno coconut embryo

Caferiono Follosco - Electrical and Agricultural Engineering.

Francisco Fronda H development of poultry industry not only in the Philippines but in the Asia region too.

Angel L. Lazaro III -Civil Engineer and Environmental Planner

Dr. Salcedo biochemistry, nutrition, physiology.

Gregario Velasquez -pioneered Philippine phycology and made the first intensive study of Myxophyceae or bluegreen algae

Teodula MTopacio Jr -leptospiral disease of domistecated animals

Joventino Soriano - plant cytogenetics and mutations

Angel Alcala is behind the invention of artifical coral reefs used for fisheries in Southeast Asia.

Arturo Alcaraz is a volcanologist specializing in geothermal energy development.

Benjamin Almeda designed a food-processing machine.

Julian Banzon researched methods of producing alternative fuels.

Ramon Barba invented practical flower induction treatments.

Doctor Benjamin Cabrera has developed innovations in drug treatments against diseases caused by mosquitoes and agricultural soil.

Paulo Campos built the first radioisotope laboratory in the Philippines.

Magdalena Cantoria is a noted Filipino botanist.

Josefino Comiso Filipino Physicist has been warning the world about global warming.

Doctor Lourdes Cruz has made scientific contributions to the biochemistry field of conotoxins.

Rolando De La Cruz Filipino scientist invented an anti cancer skin cream.

Emerita De Guzman researched the propagation of pure makapuno trees.

Doctor Fe Del Mundo is credited with studies leading to the invention of an improved incubator and a jaundice relieving device.

Anacleto Del Rosario Filipino chemist won the first prize at the World Fair in Paris in 1881

Ernesto Del Rosario is Filipino chemist best known for his achievements in biotechnology and applied physical chemistry.

Roberto Del Rosario is the inventor of the Karaoke Sing Along System.

Daniel Dingel claims to have invented a water-powered car.

Pedro Escuro is best known for his isolation of nine rice varieties.

Agapito Flores has been acclaimed by some as being the inventor of the first fluorescent lamp

Pedro Flores was the first person to manufactured the yo-yo in the United States.

Francisco Fronda is know as the Father of poultry science in the Philippines.

Carmen Intengan - Food and nutrition researcher a pioneer that helped improve the Filipino diet.

Amando Kapauan was a Filipino chemist who specialized in environmental chemistry.

Hilario Lara helped establish the National Research Council of the Philippines.

Felix Maramba built a coconut oil-fueled power generator.

Luz Oliveros Belardo researched the phytochemical properties of plants in the Philippines for natural products

Maria Orosa - Pioneering food inventor invented Calamansi Nip and Soyalac.

William Padolina has served as the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology for the Philippines.

Eduardo Quisumbing was a noted expert in the medicinal plants of the Philippines.

Francisco Quisumbing invented Quink ink.

Dolores Ramirez promoted the development of genetics in the Philippines.

Jose Rodriguez is a noted Filipino scientist and researcher who has invented methods of controlling leprosy.

Eduardo San Juan worked on the team that invented the Lunar Rover or Moon Buggy.

Alfredo Santos is a noted researcher in the chemistry of natural products.

Francisco Santos studied the nutritional problems associated with the Filipino diet.

Carmen Velasquez was a noted Filipino biologist.

Gregorio Zara - discovered the physical law of electrical kinetic resistance called the Zara effect

Prescillano Zamora - is best known for his research in plant anatomy-morphology including the taxonomy of Philippine ferns and the discovery of more fern species.

Annabel Lee

It was many and many a year ago,
In a kingdom by the sea,
That a maiden there lived whom you may know
By the name of ANNABEL LEE;
And this maiden she lived with no other thought
Than to love and be loved by me.

I was a child and she was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea;
But we loved with a love that was more than love-
I and my Annabel Lee;
With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven
Coveted her and me.

And this was the reason that, long ago,
In this kingdom by the sea,
A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling
My beautiful Annabel Lee;
So that her highborn kinsman came
And bore her away from me,
To shut her up in a sepulcher
In this kingdom by the sea.

The angels, not half so happy in heaven,
Went envying her and me-
Yes!- that was the reason (as all men know,
In this kingdom by the sea)
That the wind came out of the cloud by night,
Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.

But our love it was stronger by far than the love
Of those who were older than we-
Of many far wiser than we-
And neither the angels in heaven above,
Nor the demons down under the sea,
Can ever dissever my soul from the soul
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee.

For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling- my darling- my life and my bride,
In the sepulchre there by the sea,
In her tomb by the sounding sea.

A Dream Within A Dream

Take this kiss
upon the brow!
And, in parting from you now,
Thus much let me avow-
You are not wrong, who deem
That my days have been a dream;
Yet if hope has flown away
In a night, or in a day,
In a vision, or in none,
Is it therefore the less gone?
All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream.

I stand amid the roar
Of a surf-tormented shore,
And I hold within my hand
Grains of the golden sand-
How few! yet how they creep
Through my fingers to the deep,
While I weep- while I weep!
O God! can I not grasp
Them with a tighter clasp?
O God! can I not save
One from the pitiless wave?
Is all that we see or seem
But a dream within a dream?

Amazing Grace

Amazing grace! (how sweet the sound!)
That sav'd a wretch like me!
I once was lost, but now am found;
Was blind, but now I see.

'Twas grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears reliev'd;
How precious did that grace appear,
The hour I first believ'd!

Thro' many dangers, toils, and snares,
I have already come;
'Tis grace has brought me safe thus far,
And grace will lead me home.

The Lord has promis'd good to me,
His word my hope secures;
He will my shield and portion be,
As long as life

Yes, when this flesh and heart shall fail,
And mortal life shall cease;
I shall possess, within the veil,
A life of joy and peace.

This earth shall soon dissolve like snow,
The sun forbear to shine;
But God, who call'd me here below,
Will be for ever mine.